Lesa France Kennedy House, Articles M

It was this pilgrimage that awakened the world to the stupendous wealth of Mali. The Mali Empire consisted of land that is now part of Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania, The Gambia, and the modern state of Mali. Sandaki likely means High Counsellor or Supreme Counsellor, from san or sanon (meaning "high") and adegue (meaning counsellor). [67] News of the Malian empire's city of wealth even traveled across the Mediterranean to southern Europe, where traders from Venice, Granada, and Genoa soon added Timbuktu to their maps to trade manufactured goods for gold.[68]. [e] After the loss of the first expedition, Muhammad led the second expedition himself. He is the resurrected spirit of Masuta the Ascended, the second boss in the first elite dungeon, Temple of Aminishi . He also brought architects from the Middle East and across Africa to design new buildings for his cities. Jansen, Jan: "The Younger Brother and the Stranger. This trend would continue into colonial times against Tukulor enemies from the west.[121]. Captivation History summarizes Mansa Musa's story from his ancestors to his descendants as they reigned over the Mali Empire beginning in the 1300s. Mansa Souleyman Keita died in 1360 and was succeeded by his son, Camba Keita. [62] According to one account given by Ibn Khaldun, Musa's general Saghmanja conquered Gao. He brought a large entourage with him which impressed people everywhere they went. In Ibn Khaldun's account, Sundjata is recorded as Mari Djata with "Mari" meaning "Amir" or "Prince". [100], Arabic writers, such as Ibn Battuta and Abdallah ibn Asad al-Yafii, praised Musa's generosity, virtue, and intelligence. Intro animation: Syawish Rehman. Musa provided all necessities for the procession, feeding the entire company of men and animals. The value of the salt was chiefly determined by the transport costs. [40] Seemingly contradictory reports written by Arab visitors, a lack of definitive archaeological evidence, and the diversity of oral traditions all contribute to this uncertainty. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca from 1324 to 1326. [36][37][38], According to the Tarikh al-Fattash, Musa had a wife named Inari Konte. Musa made his pilgrimage between 1324 and 1325 spanning 2,700 miles. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita (c. 1214 - c. 1255) and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa (Musa Keita). [52][55], Musa's generosity continued as he traveled onwards to Mecca, and he gave gifts to fellow pilgrims and the people of Medina and Mecca. Like the Great Mosque, a contemporaneous and grandiose structure in Timbuktu, the Hall was built of cut stone. Our publication has been reviewed for educational use by Common Sense Education, Internet Scout (University of Wisconsin), Merlot (California State University), OER Commons and the School Library Journal. He was deposed in 1389, marking the end of the Faga Laye Keita mansas. Every year merchants entered Mali via Oualata with camel loads of salt to sell in Niani. Elephant ivory was another major source of wealth.When Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca in 1324 C.E., his journey through Egypt caused quite a stir. [46] He sought closer ties with the rest of the Muslim world, particularly the Mamluk and Marinid Sultanates. However, many believe Mansa Musa's wealth outdoes that of all modern billionaires. His reign is associated with numerous construction projects, including part of Djinguereber Mosque in Timbuktu. Your email address will not be published. The people of the south needed salt for their diet, but it was extremely rare. [11][b] In Mand tradition, it was common for one's name to be prefixed by their mother's name, so the name Kanku Musa means "Musa, son of Kanku", although it is unclear if the genealogy implied is literal. [105][106] Three years later, Oualata also fell into their hands. Mansa Musa eventually gained the throne owing to a strange sequence of events that turned in his favor. [122] Their forces marched as far north as Kangaba, where the mansa was obliged to make a peace with them, promising not to attack downstream of Mali. [17] Whether Mali originated as the name of a town or region, the name was subsequently applied to the entire empire ruled from Mali. Swords were drawn, but before the situation escalated further, Musa persuaded his men to back down. [20] For the later period of the Mali Empire, the major written primary sources are Portuguese accounts of the coastal provinces of Mali and neighboring societies.[21]. From 1389 onwards Mali gained a host of mansas of obscure origins. He did however, maintain contacts with Morocco, sending a giraffe to King Abu Hassan. National Geographic Headquarters 1145 17th Street NW Washington, DC 20036. But the Mali Empire built by his predecessors was too strong for even his misrule and it passed intact to Musa's brother, Souleyman Keita in 1341. The University of Sankore in Timbuktu was restaffed under Musa's reign with jurists, astronomers, and mathematicians. Upon stabbing their spears into the ground before Sundiata's throne, each of the twelve kings relinquished their kingdom to the Keita dynasty. The "Qur'an" had a great importance to Mansa Musa as it states "God loves the charitable" (Document D). Trade was a significant factor to the rise and success of Mali. [81] He was replaced by Abu Bakr, a son of Sunjata's daughter. Then, in 1630, the Bamana of Djenn declared their version of holy war on all Muslim powers in present-day Mali. To his parents' dread, the prince did not have a promising start. Mansa Ms left a realm notable for its extent and richeshe built the Great Mosque at Timbuktubut he is best remembered in the Middle East and Europe for the splendour of his pilgrimage to Mecca (1324). Very little is known about the life of Mansa Musa before 1312. Using the reign lengths reported by Ibn Khaldun to calculate back from the death of Mansa Suleyman in 1360, Musa would have died in 1332. [86], The name "Musa" has become virtually synonymous with pilgrimage in Mand tradition, such that other figures who are remembered as going on a pilgrimage, such as Fakoli, are also called Musa. Mansa Mahmud Keita II received the Portuguese envoys Pro d'vora and Gonalo Enes in 1487. The lands of Bambougou, Jalo (Fouta Djallon), and Kaabu were added into Mali by Fakoli Koroma (Nkrumah in Ghana, Kurumah in the Gambia, Colley in Casamance, Senegal),[70] Fran Kamara (Camara) and Tiramakhan Traore (Tarawelley in the Gambia),[77] respectively Among the many different ethnic groups surrounding Manden were Pulaar speaking groups in Macina, Tekrur and Fouta Djallon. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. That same year, after the Mandinka general known as Sagmandir put down yet another rebellion in Gao,[93] Mansa Musa came to Gao and accepted the capitulation of the King of Ghana and his nobles. His elaborate pilgrimage to the Muslim holy city of Mecca in 1324 introduced him to rulers in the Middle East and in Europe. The area was famous as a hunting ground for the large amount of game that it sheltered, as well as its dense vegetation. This process was essential to keep non-Manding subjects loyal to the Manding elites that ruled them. The fame of Mansa Musa and his phenomenal wealth spread as he traveled on his hajjto Mecca. Mansa Mari Djata Keita II became seriously ill in 1372,[93] and power moved into the hands of his ministers until his death in 1374. Nobody lived in the area except the Musafa servants who worked to dig the salts and lived on dates imported from Sijilmasa and the Dar'a valley, camel meat and millet imported from the Sudan. [12][h] Ibn Battuta, who visited Mali during the reign of Musa's brother Sulayman, said that Musa's grandfather was named Sariq Jata. Mali flourished especially when Timbuktu came under Mansa Musa's control. [97] Though this has been described as having "wrecked" Egypt's economy,[85] the historian Warren Schultz has argued that this was well within normal fluctuations in the value of gold in Mamluk Egypt. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Different oral traditions conflict with each other, as well as Ibn Khaldun, about the transfer of power following Sunjata's death. [70] Gbr Keita was crowned Mansa Ouali Keita II and ruled during the period of Mali's contact with Portugal. Musa I (c. 1280 - 1337), better known as Mansa Musa, was the ninth mansa of the Mali Empire.Widely considered to have been the wealthiest person in known history (some sources measuring his wealth at around $400 billion adjusted to inflation), his vast wealth was used to attract scholars, merchants and architects to Mali, establishing it as a beacon of Islamic trade, culture and learning. Inside the world's wealthiest", "Mansa Musa (Musa I of Mali) | National Geographic Society", "The 25 richest people who ever lived inflation adjusted", "Civilization VI the Official Site | News | Civilization VI: Gathering Storm Mansa Musa Leads Mali", International Journal of African Historical Studies, "Searching for History in The Sunjata Epic: The Case of Fakoli", "chos d'Arabie. Musa and his entourage arrived at the outskirts of Cairo in July 1324. [70] Manden was split in half with the Dodougou territory to the northeast and the Kri territory to the southwest. [93] In 1514, the Denianke dynasty was established in Tekrour. Another testimony from Ibn Khaldun describes the grand pilgrimage of Mansa Musa consisting of 12,000 slaves: "He made a pilgrimage in 724/1324 []. Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society. Wali was succeeded by his brother Wati, about whom nothing is known,[82][83] and then his brother Khalifa. [61], According to the Tarikh al-Sudan, the cities of Gao and Timbuktu submitted to Musa's rule as he traveled through on his return to Mali. One of these was Dioma, an area south of Niani populated by Fula Wassoulounk. Extensive archaeological digs have shown that the area was an important trade and manufacturing center in the 15th century, but no firm evidence of royal residence has come to light. The empire taxed every ounce of gold, copper and salt that entered its borders. A legend claims that Sunjata transformed into a hippopotamus. The new Songhai Empire conquered Mema,[93] one of Mali's oldest possessions, in 1465. In oral tradition and the Timbuktu Chronicles, Musa is known as Kanku Musa. Yet native sources seem to pay him little attention. At both Gao and Timbuktu, a Songhai city almost rivalling Gao in importance, Mansa Ms commissioned Ab Isq al-Sil, a Granada poet and architect who had travelled with him from Mecca, to build mosques. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. [79][80], Musa's reign is commonly regarded as Mali's golden age, but this perception may be the result of his reign being the best recorded by Arabic sources, rather than him necessarily being the wealthiest and most powerful mansa of Mali. [86] Qu was succeeded by his son Muhammad, who launched two voyages to explore the Atlantic Ocean. During Musa's 25-year-rule the Mali Empire more than tripled in size and had significant influence in several modern day countries including Mauritania, Senegal, Nigeria, Burkino Faso and Chad. The Mali Empire (Manding: Mand[3] or Manden; Arabic: , romanized:Ml) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1226 to 1670. [93] Dyamani-tiguis had to be approved by the mansa and were subject to his oversight. [90][91] His reign is considered the golden age of Mali. Ms Is hajj left a lasting impression of Malis splendour on both the Islamic and European worlds. Furthermore, his hajj in 1324 was in some ways an act of solidarity that showed his connection to other rulers and peoples throughout the Islamic world. In approximately 1140 the Sosso kingdom of Kaniaga, a former vassal of Wagadou, began conquering the lands of its old rulers. It is unknown from whom he descended; however, another emperor, Mansa Maghan Keita III, is sometimes cited as Mansa Mahmud Keita I. Mansa Musa returned from Mecca with several Islamic scholars, including direct descendants of the prophet Muhammad and an Andalusian poet and architect by the name of Abu Es Haq es Saheli, who is . By the beginning of the 14th century, Mali was the source of almost half the Old World's gold exported from mines in Bambuk, Boure and Galam. The only major setback to his reign was the loss of Mali's Dyolof province in Senegal. With a global population of some 11 million, the Mandinka are the best-known ethnic group of the Mande peoples, all of whom speak different dialects of the Mande language. His religious devotion contributed to the spread of Islam across West Africa. While in Mecca, conflict broke out between a group of Malian pilgrims and a group of Turkic pilgrims in the Masjid al-Haram. Bowmen formed a large portion of the field army as well as the garrison. The Mali Empire began in and was centered around the Manding region in what is now southern Mali and northeastern Guinea. [43] Perhaps because of this, Musa's early reign was spent in continuous military conflict with neighboring non-Muslim societies. "[65], It is recorded that Mansa Musa traveled through the cities of Timbuktu and Gao on his way to Mecca, and made them a part of his empire when he returned around 1325. [96], According to some Arabic writers, Musa's gift-giving caused a depreciation in the value of gold in Egypt. He also made Eid celebrations at the end of Ramadan a national ceremony. [69] The Kangaba province, free of Sonink influence, splintered into twelve kingdoms with their own maghan (meaning prince) or faama. It was this pilgrimage that awakened the world to the stupendous wealth of Mali. Still, when Ibn Battuta arrived at Mali in July 1352, he found a thriving civilisation on par with virtually anything in the Muslim or Christian world. Web. It was during Suleyman's 19-year reign that Ibn Battuta visited Mali. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. (2020, October 17). [98] Musa's hajj, and especially his gold, caught the attention of both the Islamic and Christian worlds. Mali's Timbuktu was known for its schools and libraries. During his monarchy Musa or Musa, I was highly powered and the richest individual king Mansa Musa the . However, the legendary oral tradition that surrounds Keita suggests that he never turned away from his native religion. Ms I is widely considered the wealthiest man in history. [13][12] In the Manding languages, the modern descendants of the language spoken at the core of the Mali Empire, Manden or Manding is the name of the region corresponding to the heartland of the Mali Empire. Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim. Islamic studies flourished thereafter. published on 17 October 2020. His skillful administration left his empire well-off at the time of his death, but eventually, the empire fell apart. We all know of Mansa Musa, possibly the richest man to ever exist. King of Kings in the Mandinka language a reference to a great ruler in the Mali Empire of ancient Africa. It then seized Timbuktu from the Tuareg in 1468 under Sunni Ali Ber. The only real requirement was that the mansa knew he could trust this individual to safeguard imperial interests. Regardless of their title in the province, they were recognised as dyamani-tigui (province-master) by the mansa. [45] Those animals included 80 camels which each carried 23136kg (50300lb) of gold dust. [75] This victory resulted in the fall of the Kaniaga kingdom and the rise of the Mali Empire. [93] Mansa Maghan Keita I spent wastefully and was the first lacklustre emperor since Khalifa Keita. Please note that some of these recommendations are listed under our old name, Ancient History Encyclopedia. [44] Niani's reputation as an imperial capital may derive from its importance in the late imperial period, when the Songhai Empire to the northeast pushed Mali back to the Manding heartland. Al-Nasir expected Musa to prostrate himself before him, which Musa initially refused to do. Maghan Sundiata was declared "faama of faamas" and received the title "mansa", which translates as "king". He stopped in Cairo along the way, and his luxurious spending and gift giving was so extensive that he diluted the value of gold by 10 to 25 percent and impacted Cairos economy for at least 12 years afterward. Umari also describes the empire as being south of Marrakesh and almost entirely inhabited except for few places. Thank you for your help! He had so much gold that during his hajj to Mecca, the Mansa passed out gold to all the poor along the way. His administration and military work allowed the empire to survive through the 16th century, solidifying him, his empire, and his family into the imaginations of storytellers around the world. Oral tradition states that he had three sons who fought over Manden's remains. Abu Bakr was the first and only mansa to inherit through the female line, which has been argued to be either a break from or a return to tradition. [28] The Tarikh al-fattash claims that Musa accidentally killed Kanku at some point prior to his hajj. Several 21st century historians have firmly rejected Niani as a capital candidate based on a lack of archaeological evidence of significant trade activity, clearly described by Arab visitors, particularly during the 14th century, Mali's golden age. [46] Kangaba became the last refuge of the Keita royal family after the collapse of the Mali Empire, and so has for centuries been associated with Sundiata in the cultural imagination of Mande peoples. All of them agree that he took a very large group of people; the mansa kept a personal guard of some 500 men,[94] and he gave out so many alms and bought so many things that the value of gold in Egypt and Arabia depreciated for twelve years. However, Al-Nasir Muhammad returned Musa's earlier show of generosity with gifts of his own. She or he will best know the preferred format. Its first meeting, at the famous Kouroukan Fouga (Division of the World), had 29 clan delegates presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremony). An army was required to guard the borders to protect its flourishing trade. [j][52][53] While in Cairo, Musa met with the Mamluk sultan al-Nasir Muhammad, whose reign had already seen one mansa, Sakura, make the hajj. A city called Dieriba or Dioliba is sometimes mentioned as the capital or main urban center of the province of Mande in the years before Sundiata, that was later abandoned. He built mosques and large public buildings in cities like Gao and, most famously, Timbuktu. He ruled between 707-732/737 according to the Islamic calendar (AH), which translates to 1307-1332/1337 CE. The Songhai kingdom measured several hundreds of miles across, so that the conquest meant the acquisition of a vast territory. Embedded by Arienne King, published on 17 October 2020. However, territories that were crucial to trade or subject to revolt would receive a farba. In the event of conquest, farins took control of the area until a suitable native ruler could be found. The conquest of Sosso in c. 1235 gave the Mali Empire access to the trans-Saharan trade routes. Musa's reign is often regarded as the zenith of Mali's power and prestige. The last son of Maghan Keita I, Tenin Maghan Keita (also known as Kita Tenin Maghan Keita for the province he once governed) was crowned Mansa Maghan Keita II in 1387. [16] However, al-Umari gives Mali as the name of the capital province and Ibn Khaldun refers to Mali as a people, with each giving different names for the capital city itself. He was the son of Niani's faama, Nare Fa (also known as Maghan Kon Fatta meaning the handsome prince). The Keitas retreated to the town of Kangaba, where they became provincial chiefs. Emperors and Empresses from Around the (Non-Roman) World Quiz, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Musa-I-of-Mali, World History Encyclopedia - Mansa Musa I, Musa - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Salt was as valuable, if not more valuable, than gold in sub-Saharan Africa. [69] The university became a center of learning and culture, drawing Muslim scholars from around Africa and the Middle East to Timbuktu. Dates: 4001591 C. E.", "Is Mansa Musa the richest man who ever lived? Mansa Musa was very wealthy and religious man who went on his Hajj for religious reasons and to also help people from his empire make the holy trip to Mecca for the god Allah. He had first-hand information from several sources, and from a second-hand source, he learned of the visit of Mansa Musa. [119], It would be the Mandinka themselves that would cause the final destruction of the empire. . In 1542, the Songhai invaded the capital city but were unsuccessful in conquering the empire. [71] The tiny kingdom of Niani was one of several in the Kri area of Manden. Ibn Battuta observed the employment of servants in both towns. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. Mansa Musa (about 1280 - about 1337) was an emperor (mansa) of the Mali Empire during the 14th century. These oral stories . Accounts of how many people and how much gold he spent vary. The exact date of Musa's accession is debated. The Mandinka went on to form the powerful and rich Mali Empire, which produced the richest Black man who ever lived, King Mansa Musa. Mali was thriving for a long time, but like other west African kingdoms, Mali began to fall. Omissions? Most West African canoes were of single-log construction, carved and dug out from one massive tree trunk.[144]. [16], Al-Yafii gave Musa's name as Musa ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abi al-Aswad (Arabic: , romanized:Ms ibn Ab Bakr ibn Ab al-Aswad),[17] and Ibn Hajar gave Musa's name as Musa ibn Abi Bakr Salim al-Takruri. Among these are references to "Pene" and "Malal" in the work of al-Bakri in 1068,[53][54] the story of the conversion of an early ruler, known to Ibn Khaldun (by 1397) as Barmandana,[55] and a few geographical details in the work of al-Idrisi. In 1330, the kingdom of Mossi invaded and conquered the city of Timbuktu. [40] Ibn Battuta and Leo Africanus both call the capital "Mali. [107] The Gambia was still firmly in Mali's control, and these raiding expeditions met with disastrous fates before Portugal's Diogo Gomes began formal relations with Mali via its remaining Wolof subjects. The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. But more reasoned analysis suggests that his role, if any, was quite limited. [89] This claim is often sourced to an article in CelebrityNetWorth,[89] which claims that Musa's wealth was the equivalent of US$400 billion. To Musa, Islam was "an entry into the cultured world of the Eastern Mediterranean". If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. In the first millennium BC, early cities and towns were created by Mande peoples related to the Soninke people, along the middle Niger River in central Mali, including at Dia which began from around 900 BC, and reached its peak around 600 BC,[52] and Djenne-Djenno, which lasted from around 250 BC to 900 AD. He made his wealth and that of Mali known through a long and extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, the 17th year of his reign as emperor of Mali. 05 Mar 2023. [85] He went on the hajj during the reign of Mamluk sultan an-Nasir Muhammad (12981308) and was killed in Tajura on his way back to Mali. What made this possible was the decentralised nature of administration throughout the state. Ibn Khaldun recorded that in 776 A.H or 1374/1375 AD he interviewed a Sijilmasan scholar named Muhammad b. Wasul who had lived in Gao and had been employed in its judiciary. Mahmud Keita, possibly a grandchild or great-grandchild of Mansa Gao Keita, was crowned Mansa Maghan Keita III in 1390. His descendants migrated to the land of Mali and established the Mandinka clan of Keita. [89][85] Contemporary Arabic sources may have been trying to express that Musa had more gold than they thought possible, rather than trying to give an exact number. "Mansa Musa Family Tree | Empire of Mali." The Bamana, likewise, vowed not to advance farther upstream than Niamina. The mansa could also replace a farba if he got out of control, as in the case of Diafunu. He ruled oppressively and nearly bankrupted Mali with his lavish spending. [citation needed] The northern region on the other hand had no shortage of salt. Constant civil war between leaders led to a weakened state. [95] When he passed through Cairo, historian al-Maqrizi noted "the members of his entourage proceeded to buy Turkish and Ethiopian slave girls, singing girls and garments, so that the rate of the gold dinar fell by six dirhams.". Mansa Musa turned the kingdom of Mali into a sophisticated center of learning in the Islamic world.Mansa Musa came to power in 1312 C.E., after the previous king, Abu Bakr II, disappeared at sea. King Mansa Musa is famous for his Hajj journey, during which he stopped off in Egypt and gave out so much gold that the Egyptian economy was ruined for years to come. He never took the field again after Kirina, but his generals continued to expand the frontier, especially in the west where they reached the Gambia River and the marches of Tekrur. [84] Then an enslaved court official, Sakura, seized power. The World History Encyclopedia logo is a registered trademark. [34][35] Nonetheless, the possibility of such a voyage has been taken seriously by several historians. [citation needed]. [45], Many oral histories point to a town called Dakajalan as the original home of the Keita clan and Sundiata's childhood home and base of operations during the war against the Soso. Mans third spouse tells court he was a despot, Woman describes treatment in Aguanga torture trial, Social worker: Children in torture case appeared happy, healthy, Calif. torture trial airs family horror stories, Polygamist who tortured his family is sentenced to 7 life terms, Aguanga man to serve seven life sentences, Emerging from a notorious hell of abuse to counsel others, Laura Cowan, Mansa Musa Muhummed: Sex, Torture, Beatings In Muslim Cult, Former Polygamy Wife Speaks Out On Justice By Any Means. It is not known if this was an attempt to correct the depreciation of gold in the area due to his spending,[7] or if he had simply run out of the funds needed for the return trip. [70] However, once Sundiata did gain use of his legs he grew strong and very respected. [70], The number and frequency of conquests in the late 13th century and throughout the 14th century indicate the Kolonkan mansas inherited and/or developed a capable military. In 1203, the Sosso king Soumaoro of the Kant clan came to power and reportedly terrorised much of Manden stealing women and goods from both Dodougou and Kri. While in Cairo, Mansa Musa met with the Sultan of Egypt, and his caravan spent and gave away so much gold that the overall value of gold decreased in Egypt for the next 12 years. Musa expanded the borders of the Mali Empire, in particular incorporating the cities of Gao and Timbuktu into its territory. [24] The empire's total area included nearly all the land between the Sahara Desert and coastal forests. The child of this marriage received the first name of his mother (Sogolon) and the surname of his father (Djata). The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. Musa conquered more than 20 major cities in his lifetime. They are descendants of. Please check the original source(s) for copyright information. Mansa Musa (1280-1337) Mansa Musa, fourteenth century emperor of the Mali Empire, is the medieval African ruler most known to the world outside Africa. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. What did Ms I do when he returned to Mali? Not only do we pay for our servers, but also for related services such as our content delivery network, Google Workspace, email, and much more. 4. Cairo and Mecca received this royal personage, whose glittering procession, in the superlatives employed by Arab chroniclers, almost put Africas sun to shame. [93] Gold mines in Boure, which is located in present-day Guinea, were discovered sometime near the end of the 12th century. The Joma area, governed from Siguiri, controlled the central region, which encompassed Niani. Musa stayed in Cairo for three months, departing on 18 October[k] with the official caravan to Mecca. World History Encyclopedia. Intro music: "Lord of the Land" by Kevin MacLeod and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution license 4.0. Sundiata's mother was Maghan Kon Fatta's second wife, Sogolon Kdjou. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Niane, D. T.: "Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali". In Mali he promoted trans-Saharan trade that further increased the empires wealth. [93], In 1477, the Yatenga emperor Nassr made yet another Mossi raid into Macina, this time conquering it and the old province of BaGhana (Wagadou).[109]. [93] Mansa Souleyman's generals successfully fought off the military incursions, and the senior wife Kassi behind the plot was imprisoned. His riches came from the mining of significant gold and salt deposits in the Mali Empire, along with the slave and ivory trade.[6][7]. Mansa Ms, either the grandson or the grandnephew of Sundiata, the founder of his dynasty, came to the throne in 1307. The Rock art in the Sahara suggests that northern Mali has been inhabited since 10,000 BC, when the Sahara was fertile and rich in wildlife. World History Encyclopedia. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. The architectural crafts in Granada had reached their zenith by the fourteenth century, and its extremely unlikely that a cultured and wealthy poet would have had anything more than a dilettante's knowledge of the intricacies of contemporary architectural practice.